Diabetes- Macrovascular complications
DIABETES – MACROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS Accelerated atherosclerosis – leads to narrowing of arterial walls throughout the body Increased platelet adhesion and hypercoagulability Increased coagulability and impaired fibrinolysis.
as many as 80 % of patients with type 2 diabetes develop CV complications and they are responsible for about 65 % of deaths in this group strong association between diabetes and CVD has been observed in multiple studies IHD and stroke account for the greatest proportion of morbidity associated with diabetes people with Type 2 diabetes are more likely to suffer MI and develop heart failure than people without diabetes diabetics who suffer with MI have adverse outcomes in comparison to those without diabetes more than 70 % of people with diabetes suffer with hypertension or are being treated with antihypertensives diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction which may result in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction diabetes increases the risk of stroke and is correlated with a worse outcome and more disability after stroke diabetics with PAD are more likely to suffer ischaemic ulceration and worse revascularisation outcomes.
Diabetes duration ( biggest risk factor for albuminuria and retinopathy , peripheral neuropathy and macrovascular disease ) Young age at diagnosis Higher HbA1c Higher blood pressure ( hypertension , diabetic kidney disease , insulin resistance or severe diabetic neuropathy are risk factors for cardiovascular disease ) Hypercholesterolemia Socioeconomic disadvantage Lifestyle factors as smoking , poor exercise , diet , obesity.
- Deshpande, Anjali D et al. “Epidemiology of diabetes and diabetes-related complications.” Physical therapy vol. 88,11 (2008): 1254-64. doi:10.2522/ptj.20080020
- Macrovascular complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Author(s): Margus Viigimaa*, Alexandros Sachinidis, Maria Toumpourleka, Konstantinos Koutsampasopoulos, Signe Alliksoo and Tiina Titma Volume 18 , Issue 2 , 2020 Page: [110 – 116] Abstract
- Kosiborod, M., Gomes, M.B., Nicolucci, A. et al. Vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes: prevalence and associated factors in 38 countries (the DISCOVER study program). Cardiovasc Diabetol 17, 150 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12933-018-0787-8
- Viigimaa, Margus & Sachinidis, Alexandros & Toumpourleka, Maria & Koutsampasopoulos, Konstantinos & Alliksoo, Signe & Titma, Tiina. (2019). Macrovascular Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Current Vascular Pharmacology. 17. 10.2174/1570161117666190405165151.
- Graves Lara E., Donaghue Kim C. Vascular Complication in Adolescents With Diabetes Mellitus JOURNAL=Frontiers in Endocrinology VOLUME11 YEAR 2020 URL https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fendo.2020.00370 DOI=10.3389/fendo.2020.00370