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Diabetes – Types

Group of metabolic disorders characterized and identified by the presence of
 hyperglycemia in the absence of treatment

 

Type 1 diabetes – beta cell destruction autoimmune process a small number may happen due to an idiopathic destruction or failure of beta cell types absolute insulin deficiency leads to persistent hyperglycemia onset usually in childhood or early adulthood

 

Type 2 diabetes – various degree of beta cell dysfunction & insulin resistance previously called as non-insulin dependent or adult onset diabetes serious public health concern , rapid economic development , urbanization, consumption of unhealthy diets , sedentary lifestyles etc have all contributed resulting in elevated BMI and fasting plasma glucose. Globally an estimated 462 million individuals are affected by Type 2 diabetes which was
 6.28 % of the world population in 2020
 Prevalence continues to rise worldwide with no signs of stabilizing yet.

 

Hyperglycemia which develops during pregnancy- Around 35,000 women have either pre-existing or gestational diabetes each year in England and wales Most common metabolic disorder of pregnancy.

 

Monogenic diabetes – due to single gene mutation account for 1 % to 2 % of cases and all forms inherited & can be misdiagnosed as Type 1 or 2 two main types

○ neonatal DM occurring in 1st 6 months of life

○ Maturity onset diabetes of the young or MODY -several subtypes and the most prevalent ones are due to mutations in the genes HNF1A , GCK and HNF4

 

Others – disease of exocrine pancreas 
( due to trauma , tumor , inflammation ) endocrine disorders 
( excess secretion of hormones that are insulin antagonists ) drug or chemical induced infection related diabetes uncommon specific forms of immune-mediated diabetes some genetic syndromes sometimes associated with diabetes.

REFERENCES

  1. Classification of Diabetes Mellitus 2019 WHO
  2. Management of type 2 diabetes : A Handbook for general practice RACGP Management-of-type-2-diabetes-A-handbook-for-general-practice.aspx (racgp.org.au)
  3. Maahs, David M et al. “Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes.” Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America vol. 39,3 (2010): 481-97. doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2010.05.011
  4. Goyal R, Jialal I. Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. [Updated 2021 Sep 28]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513253/

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