Please register or login to view the chart

Male hypogonadism

The disruption can be at one or several levels of the hypothalamic – pituitary -gonadal axis


Also known by other names as
 androgen deficiency syndrome androgen deficiency syndrome of the ageing male ( ADAM ) andropause late-onset hypogonadism male-menopause partial androgen decline in the ageing male ( PADAM ) testosterone deficiency syndrome


Primary- testicular failure abnormality is in the testes most common cause resulting in low testosterone levels , impaired spermatogenesis and elevated gonadotrophins Klinefelter’s syndrome is the most frequent form of male hypogonadism Testicular tumors – can be seen frequently in males ( a quarter of men after treatment would develop testosterone 
deficiency ) Mumps orchitis Congenital anorchidism Cryptorchidism Radiation treatment / chemotherapy Testicular trauma Sertoli cell syndrome Autoimmune syndrome 
( anti-Leydig cell disorder )


Secondary- Hypothalamic-hypopituitary origin
 abnormality lies above the level of testes central defects of the hypothalamus or pituitary lead to secondary testicular failure
 Causes include
 hyperprolactinemia isolated ( idiopathic ) hypogonadotropic hypogonadism Kallmann syndrome -hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with anosmia , genetically determined , prevalence one in 10,000 males cranial trauma radiation treatment medications


Mixed dysfunction of hypothalamus / pituitary and gonads – combined primary and secondary testicular failure low testosterone levels variable gonadotrophin level impaired spermatogenesis

Causes include
 alcohol abuse ageing chronic infections as HIV corticosteroid treatment haemochromatosis systemic disease as liver failure , uraemia , sickle cell disease


Male hypogonadism due to defects of androgen target organs


  1. Dandona, P, and M T Rosenberg. “A practical guide to male hypogonadism in the primary care setting.” International journal of clinical practice vol. 64,6 (2010): 682-96. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2010.02355.x
  2. eEUA Guidelines on Male Hypogonadism G.R. Dohle (Chair), S. Arver, C. Bettocchi, T.H. Jones, S. Kliesch, M. Punab EAU-Guidelines-Male-Hypogonadism-2015.pdf (
  3. Ross A, Bhasin S. Hypogonadism: Its Prevalence and Diagnosis. Urol Clin North Am. 2016 May;43(2):163-76. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2016.01.002. PMID: 27132573. ( Abstract )


Related Charts:

Add Your Comments

Your email address will not be published.

This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.

A4 Medicine  - Search Less and Learn More

Welcome to the A4 medicine community where we are constantly working to provide exceptional educational material to primary health care professionals. Subscribe to our website for complete access to our A4 Charts. They are aesthetically designed charts that contain 300 (plus and adding) common and complex medical conditions with the all information required for primary care in one single page that can help you in consultation/practice and exam.

Additionally, you will get complete access for our Learn From Experts : A4 Webinar Series in which domain experts share the video explainer presentation on one medical condition in one hour for the primary care. And you will also get a hefty discount on our publications and upcoming digital products.

We are giving a lifetime flat 30% discount to our first thousand users, discount code already applied to checkout.