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Medical Topics

Helicobacter pylori infection

Helicobacter pylori is a major human pathogen that infects the stomach and produces inflammation that is responsible for various gastrointestinal diseases ( Yamaoka 2012 )

 

How common-H.pylori is a small curved highly motile gram negative microaerophilic bacterium that colonises the mucus layer of the human stomach Found in 1982 ( Warren and Marshall ) Very common bacterium and about 50 % of the world population is estimated to be
infected ( extremely successful huma pathogen ) Prevalence is highly variable –

Prostatitis

Prostatitis describes a combination of infectious diseases
 ( acute or bacterial prostatitis ) chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammation 
( Krieger et al 2008 )

 

Prevalence is high , comparable to rates of IHD and diabetes Third most important condition of the prostate AAFP reports prevalence of 8.2 % ( range from 2.2 to 9.7 % ) Rosebud et al quote a prevalence of 5 % to 9 % among unselected men in the community The lifetime probability of a man being diagnosed as prostatitis exceeds 25 % and prostatitis accounts for about ~ 25 % of men seeking medical attention for genitourinary complaints.

Long COVID

Long Covid describes a longer , more complex course of illness than that emerging from initial formal reports from Wuhan ( The Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team 2020 ; WHO , 2020a )

It must be noted that this is a new subject which is likely to change and evolve as 
more studies are done and what we know is derived from reports which are currently available ie long term data is missing
 No international consensus about the definition and lot of uncertainties persist Various terms are used in literature to describe the condition as
○ long haulers
○ long term effects of COVID 19
○ post-COVID syndrome &

Obesity ( Adults )

Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation
 that presents a risk to health ( WHO )

 

Major health hazard in the 21st century – a serious global epidemic ( Globesity ) Relatively rare before the 1960s Worldwide obesity has nearly tripled since 1975 WHO reports that
○ in 2016 nearly 1.6 billion adults ,

Spondyloarthritis -Recognition and referral

Spondyloarthritis ( SpA ) represents a group of interrelated diseases with common clinical features and a close association with HLA-B27 ( Stolwkj et al Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2015 )

 

Axial spondyloarthritis –Radiographic axial spondyloarthritis 
( ankylosing spondylitis ) Non-radial spondyloarthritis – absence of radiographic sacroiliitis but inflammation on MRI of the SI joints is frequently visible Axial SpA mostly affects the spine particularly the sacroiliac joint.

Familial hypercholesterolaemia

Familial hypercholesterolaemia ( FH ) is a genetic disorder affecting the metabolism of low density lipoprotein ( LDL ) particles leading to high LDL cholesterol levels maintained over time and higher risk of 
cardiovascular disease early in life ( Atherosclerosis-journal.com )

 

Brown and Goldstein for the first time explained the molecular basis of FH about 3 decades ago which provided the basis of link between LDL and CV disease due to atherosclerosis FH is amongst the commonest inherited metabolic disorder Prevalence of FH is estimated to be between 1 in 200-500 The prevalence is more common in persons with established coronary heart disease ( ie frequent disorder in patients with ACS ) It is widely believed that FH is more prevalent than considered historically with an overall prevalence rate of 1:200-300 individuals in the general population The prevalence also varies among populations and regions based on factors as detection methods ,

Dysmenorrhoea

Dysmenorrhoea or painful menstruation is a state of unpleasant cramping sensation of uterine origin ( Clinmedjournals.org )

 

Most commonly reported menstrual disorder in women It is thought that more than 1/2 of women who menstruate have pain for 1-2 days each month Prevalence estimates vary from 45 % to 95 % Severe pain affects 2% to 29 % It is the most common gynaecological condition in women regardless of age and nationality

 

Iron deficiency anaemia- Treatment

Treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in primary care – a review

Where possible treat the underlying cause Ensure that a referral is made for further investigations where a referral criteria is met to r/o a serious underlying cause as gastric erosion or cancer All patients need iron replacement Treatment improves QoL and physical condition as well as alleviates fatigue and cognitive deficits Aim of treatment is to
◘ restore hemoglobin level
◘ replenish iron stores

 

Iron deficiency anaemia ( IDA )

Anemia may be defined as Hb ( Hemoglobin ) concentration two standard deviation below the mean Hb concentration for a normal population of the same gender and age range ( BMJ )

Iron deficiency is a state of reduced iron stores which precedes overt iron deficiency anaemia / anemia ( IDA ) or persists without progression and IDA is when low iron levels are associated with anaemia and the presence of microcytic hypochromic red cells ( from Lancet )
 Anemia may be defined as Hb ( Hemoglobin ) concentration two standard deviation below the mean Hb concentration for a normal population of the same gender and age range ( BMJ )

Iron deficiency is a state of reduced iron stores which precedes overt iron deficiency anaemia / anemia ( IDA ) or persists without progression and IDA is when low iron levels are associated with anaemia and the presence of microcytic hypochromic red cells ( from Lancet )


 

Anaemia affects about a third of the world population and half the cases are due to iron deficiency Affects people of all age groups and is a global concern IDA is a common medical condition seen in everyday clinical practice WHO estimates that 42 % of children less than 5 and 40 % of pregnant women worldwide are anaemic Iron deficiency is the most common and nutritional deficiency ,

Essential Tremor

Essential tremor is chronic progressive neurological disease ( or perhaps family of diseases ) whose primary clinical feature is kinetic tremor of upper limbs , voice , head , face , chin , legs or a combination of these symptoms

A new term ET- Plus was coined in 2018 and classifies ET into two groups
 individuals with primary feature of ET –

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