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Type 2 diabetes

Advice about diet – diet lifestyle adherence to drug treatment

Indivdualised hba1c target- Preferences Co-morbidities Risks from polypharmacy and tight control Ability to achieve longer term risk reduction benefits Measure Hba1c 3-6 monthly as appropriate If Hba1c lower than target and no hypoglycaemia –> encourage to maintain it

Choose drugs based on- Effectiveness Safety Tolerability Individual clinical circumstances Preferences and needs Licensing and cost

Self- monitoring of blood glucose –Do not routinely offer self monitoring unless
○ on insulin
○ on oral medication that may increase their risk of hypoglycaemia while driving or operating machinery
○ pregnant or planning to become pregnant
○ evidence of hypoglycaemic episodes

Adults who can take metformin .Hba1c rises to 48 mmol.mol ( 6.5 % ) on lifestyle interventions.Try modified-release metformin if standard metformin not tolerated

Hba1c rises to
 58 ( 7.5 % ) →
First intensification-Consider dual therapy

○ Metformin + DPP4inhibitor
○ Metformin + Pioglitazone
○ Metformin + Sulphonylurea
○ Metformin + SGLT- 2 inhibitor * SGLT-2i * – dapagliflazocin ,canagliflazocin and empagliflazocin are recommended as options in dual Rx with metformin under certain conditions , as options in triple Rx and in combination with insulin. They can also be used as monotherapy in adults who cannot take or tolerate metformin. Warn about risk of diabetic ketoacidosis in people who take SGLT2-i or shortly after stopping. MHRA guidance advices testing for raised ketones in people with symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis even if plasma glucose levels are near normal.

Pioglitazone –NICE advices caution with Pioglitazone as it can be associated with increased risk of significant side effects as heart failure bladder cancer bone fracture. MHRA guidance 2011 advices that safety and efficacy should be reviewed after 3-6 months and only continue if beneficial


Second intensification
 if Hba1c rises
 to 58 ( 7.5 % )-Consider triple therapy with

○ Metformin + DPP-4i + SU
○ Metformin + pioglitazone + SU
○ Metformin + pioglitazone or an SU + SGLT-2i
 Insulin based treatment

NICE advices adding a GLP1 mimetic if triple therapy not effective or contraindicated. Metformin + SU + GLP 1 mimetic if
 BMI 35 or higher and any specific psychological or other medical problems associated with obesity or BMI lower than 35 and for whom insulin Rx would have significant occupational implications or Weight loss would benefit other sig obesity related comorbidities

People who cannot tolerate metformin-Hba1c rises to 48 mmol.mol ( 6.5 % ) on lifestyle interventions-Use one of the following
○ DPP4-i , pioglitazone or an SU
○ SGLT-2i instead of a DPP4-i if an SU or pioglitazone is not appropriate
 If on DPP4-i , SGLT-2i or pioglitazone → aim for Hba1c of 48 ( 6.5 % )
If on SU- aim for Hba1c of 53 ( 7 % )

Hba1c rises to
 58 ( 7.5 % ) →
First intensification-Offer dual therapy with

○ DPP-4i + pioglitazone
○ DPP-4i + SU
○ pioglitazone + SU

Second intensification
 if Hba1c rises
 to 58 ( 7.5 % ) insulin based treatment

Insulin based treatment –When starting insulin use a structured programme Continue metformin and review the need for other agents Offer NPH insulin once or twice a day Consider starting both NPH and a short acting insulin as
○ separately or
○ pre-mixed biphasic human insulin
particularly if Hba1c is 75 ( 9.0 % ) or higher
 NICE advice for people
○ who needs assistance with inj
○ recurrent symptomatic hypoglycemia
○ would need twice daily NPH in combination with oral hypoglycaemics -Long acting insulins eg glargine ( Lantus )
 or detemir ( Levemir )

For people who
○ prefer injecting immediately before a meal
○ hypoglycemia is a problem or
○ blood sugar level rises markedly after meal- short acting insulin analogue Insulin + GLP1 → only under specialist care advice Monitor people on insulin for the need to change the regimen SGLT2-i can be combined with insulin


For patients

Diabetes Org UK has a huge section covering all aspects related to diabetes for patients-a must for who can access this online treasure

Diabetes co UK – growing resource

American Diabetes Association – living with diabetes for patients in the US

Diet sheet Type 2 diabetes from the Association of British Dietitians

A 26 page diet guide from on Type 2 diebetes

What can I eat from ADA

Diabetes risk calculators 


Diabetes UK

Diabetes Australia



Type 2 diabetes structured programmes



Bertie ( type 1 )

Dafne ( type 1 )

Diabetes Hypo Program

Driving and Type 1 diabetes DVLA

Healthcare professional resources

All NICE guidelines on diabetes–nutritional-and-metabolic-conditions/diabetes/products?ProductType=Guidance&Status=Published

SIGN diabetes collection

ADA and the European Association for the study of Diabetes ( EASD ) type 2 diabetes guideline 2018

International Diabetes federation Global Guideline for Type 2 diabetes

Australian Diabetes Society Algorithm Type 2 diabetes




  1. Management of type 2 diabetes in adults : summary of updated NICE guidance BMJ 2016 ; 353 : i1575
  2. Algorithm for blood glucose lowering therapy in adults with type 2 diabetes download (
  3. Type 2 diabetes in adults : management NICE guideline NG 28 Published December 2015 Last updated Dec 2020 Introduction | Type 2 diabetes in adults: management | Guidance | NICE
  4. Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus : Oxford Textbook of Endocrinology and Diabetes (
  5. Forouhi, Nita Gandhi, and Nicholas J Wareham. “Epidemiology of diabetes.” Medicine (Abingdon, England : UK ed.) vol. 42,12 (2014): 698-702. doi:10.1016/j.mpmed.2014.09.007
  6. Franch Nadal J, Mata Cases M, Mauricio Puente D. Epidemiology and clinical management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated comorbidities in Spain (e-Management study). Med Clin (Barc). 2016 Nov;147 Suppl 1:1-7. English, Spanish. doi: 10.1016/S0025-7753(17)30618-8. PMID: 28760219. ( Abstract )
  7. WHO Diabetes Diabetes (
  8. Richard J. Mahler, Michael L. Adler, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Update on Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, and Treatment, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 84, Issue 4, 1 April 1999, Pages 1165–1171,
  9. Type 2 Diabetes Diagnostic criteria by the ADA Type 2 Diabetes Diagnostic Criteria by the ADA: Type 2 Diabetes ADA Diagnosis Criteria (
  10. Barik AMazumdar SChowdhury A, et al
    Physiological and behavioral risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural India
  11. Natioal Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases : Risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes | NIDDK (
  12. Reaglinide : Pubchem Repaglinide | C27H36N2O4 – PubChem (
  13. CKS NHS : Diabetes Type 2 What are the risk factors? Risk factors | Background information | Diabetes – type 2 | CKS | NICE


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